Posts tagged: aqp

With a concentration of 55,000 mM, water is by far the most prevalent molecule in biological systems.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Recombinant antibodies (rAbs) generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in an NMO patient are specific to AQP4 and pathogenic. We screened phage-displayed peptide libraries with these rAbs, and identified 14 high affinity linear and conformational peptides

ABSTRACT Tetramers of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels form supramolecular assemblies in cell membranes called orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs). We previously reported evidence that a short (M23) AQP4 isoform produced by alternative splicing forms OAPs by an intermolecular N-terminus interaction, whereas the full-length (M1) AQP4 isoform does not by itself form OAPs but can coassemble with M23 in OAPs as heterotetramers. Here, we developed a model to predict number distributions of OAP size, shape, and composition as a function M23:M1 molar ratio.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in the patient sera. We recently reported that these autoantibodies are able to bind AQP4 when organized in the supramolecular structure called the orthogonal array of particles (OAP).

Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deficiency in mice reduces neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) produced by active immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG).

Unlike other mammalian AQPs, multiple tetramers of AQP4 associate in the plasma membrane to form peculiar structures called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs), that are observable by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). However, FFEM cannot give information about the composition of OAPs of different sizes, and due to its technical complexity is not easily applicable as a routine technique. Recently, we employed the 2D gel electrophoresis BN-SDS/PAGE that for the first time enabled the biochemical isolation of AQP4-OAPs from several tissues.

Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) exists as two major isoforms that differ in the length of the N terminus, the shorter AQP4-M23 and the longer AQP4-M1. Both isoforms form tetramers, which can further aggregate in the plasma membrane to form typical orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) whose dimension depends on the ratio of the M1 and M23. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the M23 isoform can be produced directly by the M1 mRNA

The plasma membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels into orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) involves interactions of AQP4 N-terminal domains. To study in live cells the site of OAP assembly, the size and dynamics of plasma membrane OAPs, and the heterotetrameric associations of AQP4, we constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled AQP4 “long” (M1) and “short” (M23) isoforms in which GFP was inserted at the cytoplasm-facing N or C terminus or between Val-141 and Val-142 in the second extracellular loop of AQP4. The C-terminal and extracellular loop GFP insertions did not interfere with the rapid unrestricted membrane diffusion of GFP-labeled M1 or the restricted diffusion and OAP assembly of GFP-labeled M23

AQP4 water channels are thought to be the target of autoimmune attack in neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders (NMOsd). AQP4 are highly expressed on ventricular ependyma.

Background: Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab), known as NMO-IgG, are a sensitive and specific marker for neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

INTRODUCTION: The existence of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP-4-ab) has identified neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) as different diseases. Although HLA-DRB1 alleles contribute to MS risk, recent studies suggest that HLA back-ground differs between patients with NMO or MS in non-Caucasians populations

In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), B-cell autoimmunity to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been shown to be essential. However, the role of T cells remains ambiguous