Posts tagged: brain

BACKGROUND: Differentiating neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis (MS) is a real challenge in the clinical field. In the past, NMO (not MS), was inferred when abnormality was not detected in the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, some studies have reported abnormalities in the brain MRIs of NMO, but only few among the Asian population.

For patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), there are currently six approved medications that have been shown to alter the natural course of the disease. The approved medications include three beta interferon formulations, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab and mitoxantrone.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study

Background: Macular star results from deposits of hard exsudate in Henle’s fiber layer radiating out in a starlike pattern in patients with infectious optic neuritis or neuroretinitis.

Background: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which preferentially involves the optic nerve and the spinal cord. This is the first inflammatory disease of the CNS in which a specific antibody (NMO-IgG) has been detected.

Background: Relapsing-neuromyelitis optica (R-NMO) is the first CNS inflammatory autoimmune disease with a defined target molecule: the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). We have reported structural brain abnormalities in R-NMO patients by visual analysis on MRI images

Objective: To determine anti-AQP4 antibody status in Thai patients with demyelinating diseases. Methods: Blood samples of patients visiting MS clinic at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand were collected and sent to Tohoku University for testing anti-AQP4 antibodies using AQP4-transfected cell-based assay. Diagnosis was as follows

Immune cells cross the inflamed blood–brain barrier. But it’s unclear how brain inflammation begins before immune-cell entry. Studies of a model of multiple sclerosis start to solve this ‘chicken and egg’ conundrum

Brain lesions are not uncommon in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody; however, the appearance of these lesions is said to be different from that of those in Western patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To clarify the similarities and dissimilarities of brain lesions in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and -negative MS and NMO patients, we examined the presence of anti-AQP4 antibody in the sera of 148 consecutive patients fulfilling Poser’s criteria for clinically definite MS, of whom 38 also met the revised NMO criteria, using an immunofluorescence method, and analyzed brain lesions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

OBJECTIVE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease associated with optic neuritis and myelitis. Although some studies have reported multiple sclerosis (MS)-like lesions in 10-30% of NMO patients, brain MRI is usually normal. Several studies have observed metabolic abnormalities on MR spectroscopy in MS, even in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM).

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that causes severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks. It tends to spare the brain early in the disease course. Characteristics of NMO that help to distinguish it from classical MS include:? (1)more severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks; (2) prominent CSF pleocytosis (more than 50 WBC) that can be dominated by polymorphonuclear cells1-3;?(3)?lower frequency of CSF oligoclonal banding (15-30% compared with 85% in MS)1-3; and (4)?at disease onset, the brain MRI scan is normal or reveals nonspecific white matter lesions that do not meet MS MRI diagnostic criteria.

The status of fatigue, depression, and activities of daily living and their relationships with cognitive function in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) after acute relapse has never been observed. This study investigated cognitive function, fatigue, depression, activities of daily living, and the relationships among them in NMO patients. Twenty-two NMO patients without visible lesions on conventional brain MRI after acute relapse, 22 depression patients, and 22 healthy comparison subjects received several scales to assess cognitive function, fatigue, and depression