Posts tagged: lesions

Astrocytes are specialized glial cells that outnumber neurons by over fivefold. They contiguously tile the entire central nervous system (CNS) and exert many essential complex functions in the healthy CNS

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a clinically validated serum biomarker that distinguishes relapsing central nervous system (CNS) infl ammatory demyelinating disorders related to NMO from multiple sclerosis.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease often associated with a highly specific autoantibody, aquaporin-4 antibody.

The status of fatigue, depression, and activities of daily living and their relationships with cognitive function in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) after acute relapse has never been observed. This study investigated cognitive function, fatigue, depression, activities of daily living, and the relationships among them in NMO patients. Twenty-two NMO patients without visible lesions on conventional brain MRI after acute relapse, 22 depression patients, and 22 healthy comparison subjects received several scales to assess cognitive function, fatigue, and depression

Objective: To analyse clinicoepidemiological features of neuromyelitis optica in a large cohort and to compare the differences between onset age, gender and clinical phenotypes. Methods: Antiaquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab) levels were tested in 2366 serum samples of patients diagnosed as having central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders by their referring physicians. AQP4-ab was measured by indirect immunofluorescence staining using human AQP4-transfected HEK 293 cells.

A major advance over the past decade in the nosology of CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been the distinction between classic MS (CMS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Japanese investigators were first to recognize the optic-spinal form of MS (OSMS) in which, like NMO, clinical attacks of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis predominate.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Chinese patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MRI films of 61 patients with NMO (including 57 female and 4 male patients) admitted in our department

Objetive: To demonstrate the occurrence of intractable hiccup and nausea (IHN) as first symptoms in Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients who developed cervical myelitis. Background: IHN are unique symptoms of NMO, which is a neurological disorder mainly characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 25 cases of relapsing NMO seen at the Ramos Mejia Hospital in Argentina during the period from 2006 to 2010.

Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (NMO-IgG) is used as a diagnostic marker for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Although the mechanism of spinal cord lesions in NMO has been investigated, that of extensive hemispheric lesions with brain edema remains unclear.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by severe optic neuritis and longitudinally extended transverse myelitis. A serum autoantibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel densely expressed on astrocytes, has been detected exclusively in NMO and the high-risk syndrome. Pathologically, an extensive loss of AQP4 with perivascular depositions of activated complements (C9neo) as well as immunoglobulins is seen in NMO lesions, and infiltration of neutrophils is not uncommon in those lesions.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize factors that contribute to symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. SETTING: Japanese university hospitals.

Background: Although neuromyelitis optica has been traditionally regarded as a disease without brain involvement, brain abnormalities are not uncommon in patients with neuromyelitis optica-related disorders.Methods: We aimed to characterize the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients who are seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4 Ab). Of 236 consecutive patients with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system diseases, we retrospectively analyzed MRI characteristics of 78 patients who were seropositive for AQP4 Ab.Results: For an average observational period of 6.3 years, 62 patients (79%) had brain lesions on MRI