Posts tagged: neuromyelitis

Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a rare but severe demyelinating disease, characterized by severe optic neuritis and spinal myelitis. The entity was described by Eug?ne Devic in 1894 and is since then known as Devic’s Neuromyelitis Optica (1). Initially considered a monophasic variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), detailed recent reports have allowed a better definition of the disease with distinct clinical, laboratory and imaging findings.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, course, and prognosis of optic neuritis in recurrent neuromyelitis optica.

When Mrs G presented to the emergency room, clinical examination with transverse spinal cord syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging, and her complete clinical remission after plasmapheresis as well as lack of response to treatment pointed to longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, representing an inaugural or limited form of neuromyelitis optica. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies.

Neuromyelitis optica is a severe, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by attacks of myelitis and optic neuritis.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze treatment response in Brazilian patients with neuromyelitis optica. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Neuroimmunology Clinic of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

INTRODUCTION: Loss of aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with necrosis and demyelination is a prominent pathologic feature of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the clinicopathologic significance of astrocytic damage and its relation with demyelination are unknown

OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal myelitis in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a rarely reported occurrence. Here, we present a patient with longitudinal myelitis who was found to have both primary SS and a positive antibody to aquaporin-4 (NMO-IgG). We review the recent literature concerning the overlap between primary SS-associated myelitis and the presence of NMO-IgG, suggestive of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

Background: Although neuromyelitis optica has been traditionally regarded as a disease without brain involvement, brain abnormalities are not uncommon in patients with neuromyelitis optica-related disorders.Methods: We aimed to characterize the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients who are seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4 Ab). Of 236 consecutive patients with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system diseases, we retrospectively analyzed MRI characteristics of 78 patients who were seropositive for AQP4 Ab.Results: For an average observational period of 6.3 years, 62 patients (79%) had brain lesions on MRI