Posts tagged: specific

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) is a highly specific serum autoantibody that is detected in patients with NMO. Several lines of evidence indicate that AQP4-Ab not only serves as a disease marker but also plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NMO

There is a complex, diverse array of “preceding environmental events” and perhaps unconnected immune-related events which are often associated with the period before patients are diagnosed with NMO. In this review we discuss in detail how the different isoform structures of AQP4 in different membrane locales and in different cell types might be related to pathology. Changes in AQP4 expression in CNS and non-CNS tissue can be regulated by inflammatory mediators induced during and following infection or by underlying autoimmunity and can result in the induction of AQP4-specific lymphocytes and ensuing pathogenesis.

NMO-IgG is a specific biomarker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that targets the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein. The current gold standard for NMO-IgG identification is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF).

Autoantibodies that target the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are IgG1, a T cell-dependent Ig subclass. However, a role for AQP4-specific T cells in this CNS inflammatory disease is not known

OBJECTIVE: The serum of most neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients contains autoantibodies (NMO-IgGs) directed against the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel located on astrocyte foot processes in the perivessel and subpial areas of the brain. Our objectives were to determine the source of central nervous system (CNS) NMO-IgGs and their role in disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to identify overrepresented plasma cell immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an NMO patient after a first clinical attack

Neuromyelitis optica is a severe, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by attacks of myelitis and optic neuritis.

BACKGROUND: In 70-80% of cases, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with highly specific serum auto-antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed AQP4-Ab or NMO-IgG).