Posts tagged: spinal

The central nervous system ( CNS ) represents the largest part of the nervous system , including the brain and the spinal cord . Together with the peripheral nervous system , it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are associated with anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Limited data is available on longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AQP4-IgG and their relation to disease activity and inflammatory parameters. AQP4-IgG titers were measured in matched longitudinal serum and CSF samples of 12 patients with NMOSD by an immunofluorescence assay and correlated with clinical parameters

Aquaporin 4(AQP4) is a water channel protein strongly expressed in the central nervous system in perimicrovessel astrocyte foot processes, the glia limitans, and ependyma. Expression of AQP4 is highest at the blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, supporting its critical function in material transport across these structures. Recently, presence of the anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in sera has been used as an important diagnostic tool for neuromyelitis optica, suggesting a potential role in central nervous system inflammation.

Background: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in patients with no history of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease may be idiopathic or herald the development of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) or multiple sclerosis (MS). NMOSD may differ from MS in pathogenesis, prognosis and response to treatment, and radiological features at the first presentation of ATM that distinguish between NMOSD and MS would be desirable

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a human inflammatory/demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis.

Objective: To determine anti-AQP4 antibody status in Thai patients with demyelinating diseases. Methods: Blood samples of patients visiting MS clinic at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand were collected and sent to Tohoku University for testing anti-AQP4 antibodies using AQP4-transfected cell-based assay. Diagnosis was as follows

We report a case of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with an unusual pattern of remyelination in the spinal cord. A Japanese woman complained of pain and numbness in the left thumb at the age of 36 years

BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a neurological inflammatory disease associated with autoimmunity to aquaporin 4, predominantly localised in astrocytic foot processes. Recent studies have revealed that loss of aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) is a prominent feature of NMO lesions, suggesting astrocytic impairment. OBJECTIVE: To reveal a useful clinical biomarker of NMO.

We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis (MG) and Basedow’s disease who seven years after thymectomy developed subacute myelitis, a limited form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The patient presented with a centrally located long spinal cord lesion (LCL) on cervical cord MRI, anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody in serum, and HLA DPB1*0501

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a devastating neuroinflammatory disorder that specifically targets the spinal cord and optic nerves. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the target of the NMO-IgG biomarker

OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord compression may be associated with a fusiform cord lesion on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, leading to confusion with transverse myelitis and delaying effective surgical treatment. RESULTS: We describe 5 patients referred for evaluation of suspected neuromyelitis optica in whom the final diagnosis was symptomatic cervical spinal stenosis.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that causes severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks. It tends to spare the brain early in the disease course. Characteristics of NMO that help to distinguish it from classical MS include:? (1)more severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks; (2) prominent CSF pleocytosis (more than 50 WBC) that can be dominated by polymorphonuclear cells1-3;?(3)?lower frequency of CSF oligoclonal banding (15-30% compared with 85% in MS)1-3; and (4)?at disease onset, the brain MRI scan is normal or reveals nonspecific white matter lesions that do not meet MS MRI diagnostic criteria.