Posts tagged: infection

Aquaporin-4 Antibodies Are Not Related to HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy.

Bladder Pain The bladder is the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. As the bladder fills, muscles in its walls relax so that it can expand.

The functional role of ELR-positive CXC chemokines in host defense during acute viral-induced encephalomyelitis was determined. Inoculation of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) into the central nervous system (CNS) of mice resulted in the rapid mobilization of PMNs expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR2 into the blood. Migration of PMNs to the CNS coincided with increased expression of transcripts specific for the CXCR2 ELR-positive chemokine ligands CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5 within the brain.

There is a complex, diverse array of “preceding environmental events” and perhaps unconnected immune-related events which are often associated with the period before patients are diagnosed with NMO. In this review we discuss in detail how the different isoform structures of AQP4 in different membrane locales and in different cell types might be related to pathology. Changes in AQP4 expression in CNS and non-CNS tissue can be regulated by inflammatory mediators induced during and following infection or by underlying autoimmunity and can result in the induction of AQP4-specific lymphocytes and ensuing pathogenesis.

There is evidence that the presence of Aquaporin-4 is directly involved in the pathogenesis ofNMO. AQP-4 Ab is thought to bind to an extra-ceLlular domain of the target protein and the E-loop was suggested as a probable candidate epitope. Molecular mimicry namely structural similarity between epitopes contained within microbial and host proteins, leading to cross-reactive Ab’s in the host has been discussed.

INTRODUCTION: Optic neuromyelitis or Devic’s syndrome is a very rare disease affecting the optic tracts and the spinal cord. Its association with evolving pulmonary tuberculosis has been reported in a handful of case reports.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disorder involving optic neuritis and transverse myelitis.

Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy, or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), is usually considered as a progressive myelopathy, a subacute variant has been described. It is unusual for optic neuritis (ON) to be associated with an HTLV-1 infection

There are no specific treatments for patients with acute, severe neurological deficits caused by neuromyelitis optica (NMO) who fail to recover after treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. We evaluated the clinical response of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) in patients suffering from steroid-refractory NMO, and investigated the correlation between NMO and tuberculous infection of the central nervous system (CNS)